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如何完成一个出色的英文演讲,高频句型都在这

   日期:2022-06-15     浏览:35    
核心提示:A presentation is a formal talk to one or more people that presents ideas or information in a clear, structured way. Peo
 A presentation is a formal talk to one or more people that "presents" ideas or information in a clear, structured way. People are sometimes afraid of speaking in public, but if you follow a few simple rules, giving a presentation is actually very easy. This tutorial guides you through each stage of giving a presentation in English, from the initial preparation to the conclusion and questions and answers. This tutorial is itself set out like a mini-presentation. You can follow it logically by starting at the presentations introduction page and then clicking on the link at the foot of each page, or you can jump direct to the section you want from the list of contents on each page.
演讲是与一个或多个人的正式谈话,以清晰、结构化的方式“呈现”想法或信息。人们有时害怕在公共场合演讲,但如果你遵循一些简单的规则,做演讲其实很容易。本教程将指导您完成用英语进行演示的每个阶段,从最初的准备到结束以及问答。本教程本身就像一个迷你演示文稿。您可以从演示文稿介绍页开始,然后单击每页底部的链接,或者从每页的内容列表中直接跳到所需的部分。

 

 

All presentations have a common objective. People give presentations because they want to communicate in order to: inform /train /persuade /sell
所有的演讲都有一个共同的目标。人们做演讲是因为他们想交流,以便:告知/培训/说服/推销

 

 

A successful presentation is one of the most effective ways of communicating your message. And because English is so widely used in international business, a working knowledge of the vocabulary and techniques used in an English language presentation is a valuable asset.
成功的演讲是传达信息最有效的方式之一。而且,由于英语在国际商务中的应用如此广泛,掌握英语演讲中使用的词汇和技巧是一笔宝贵的财富。

 

 

Can you name the 3 most important things when giving any presentation?
你能说出演讲中最重要的三件事吗?

 

 

Number 1 is . . . preparation /Number 2 is . . . preparation /Number 3 is . . . preparation
第一个是...准备/第二个是...准备/第三个是...准备

 

 

Preparation is everything.
准备就是一切。

 

 

With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control of your audience and of your presentation. With control, you will be 'in charge' and your audience will listen positively to your message.
有了良好的准备和计划,你就会完全自信,不再紧张。你的观众会感受到你的自信。你的观众也会很自信。他们会对你充满信心的。这会给你控制权。控制你的听众和你的演讲。有了控制权,你就“掌控”了,你的听众就会积极地倾听你的信息。

 

 

Objective
目标

 

 

Before you start to prepare a presentation, you should ask yourself: "Why am I making this presentation?" Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.
在开始准备演讲之前,你应该问问自己:“我为什么要做这个演讲?”你需要告知、说服、培训还是销售?你的目标应该在你的头脑中清楚。如果你心里不清楚,你的听众就不可能清楚。

 

 

Audience
听众

 

 

"Who am I making this presentation to?" Sometimes this will be obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4 colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know already and what will they expect from you?
“我要向谁做这个演示?”有时这是显而易见的,但并非总是如此。你应该试着告诉自己。有多少人?他们是谁?生意人?专业人士?政治人物?专家还是非专家?会是一个由4位同事组成的小而亲密的团队,还是一个由400名竞争对手组成的大型聚会?他们已经知道多少了?他们对你有什么期望?

 

 

Venue
地点

 

 

"Where am I making this presentation?" In a small hotel meeting-room or a large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are the seating arrangements?
“我在哪里做这个演示?”在酒店的小会议室还是大会议厅?有哪些设施和设备?座位安排如何?

 

 

Time and length
时间和长度

 

 

"When am I making this presentation and how long will it be?" Will it be 5 minutes or 1 hour? Just before lunch, when your audience will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy?
“我什么时候做这个报告,需要多长时间?”是5分钟还是1小时?午餐前,你的听众会饿,还是午餐后,你的听众会困?

 

 

Method
方法

 

 

How should I make this presentation?" What approach should you use? Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids or only a few? Will you include some anecdotes and humour for variety?
我应该如何做这个演示?”你应该用什么方法?正式还是非正式?很多视觉教具还是只有几个?你会提供一些趣闻轶事和幽默吗?

 

 

Content
内容

 

 

"What should I say?" Now you must decide exactly what you want to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your presentation. But you must be selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also need to create a title for your presentation (if you have not already been given a title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. And you will prepare your visual aids, if you have decided to use them. But remember, in general, less is better than more (a little is better than a lot). You can always give additional information during the questions after the presentation.
“我该说什么?”现在你必须决定你到底想说什么。首先,你应该集思广益。毫无疑问,你会发现许多想法,你想包括在你的介绍。但你必须有选择性。你应该只包括与你的听众和你的目标相关的信息。你应该排除所有其他的想法。您还需要为您的演示文稿创建一个标题(如果您尚未获得标题)。这个题目能帮助你集中注意力。如果你决定使用视觉辅助工具,你会准备好的。但请记住,总的来说,少总比多好(少总比多好)。你可以在演讲后的提问中提供更多的信息。

 

 

Structure
结构

 

 

A well organised presentation with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is therefore more effective. You should organise the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most presentations are organised in three parts, followed by questions:[/en
]组织良好、结构清晰的演讲更容易让观众听懂。因此更有效。你应该把你想表达的观点按逻辑顺序组织起来。大多数演讲分为三个部分,然后是问题:

 

[en]Beginning: introduction /welcome your audience /introduce your subject /explain the structure of your presentation /explain rules for questions

开场白:介绍/欢迎听众/介绍主题/解释演讲结构/解释提问规则

 

 

Middle:Body of presentation /present the subject itself
中间:呈现主体/呈现主体本身

 

 

End:Short conclusion /summarise your presentation /thank your audience /invite questions
结束语:简短总结/总结你的演讲/感谢听众/邀请提问

 

 

Questions and Answers
问题和回答

 

 

Notes
笔记

 

 

When you give your presentation, you should be - or appear to be - as spontaneous as possible. You should not read your presentation! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text. Reading a text is boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you don't have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say? With notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make notes on small, A6 cards. Some people write down just the title of each section of their talk. Some people write down keywords to remind them. The notes will give you confidence, but because you will have prepared your presentation fully, you may not even need them!
当你做演讲时,你应该尽可能的自发。你不应该看你的报告!你应该非常熟悉你的主题和你想要传达的信息,这样你就不需要阅读文本了。读课文很无聊!读一篇课文会让你的听众睡着!所以,如果你没有一个文本阅读,你怎么能记得说你需要说的一切?带着笔记。您可以创建自己的笔记系统。有些人在A6小卡片上做笔记。有些人只写下他们演讲的每一部分的标题。有些人写下关键词来提醒他们。笔记会给你信心,但是因为你已经准备好了你的演讲,你甚至可能不需要它们!

 

 

Rehearsal
彩排

 

 

Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise your presentation two or three times. This will have the following benefits: you will become more familiar with what you want to say /you will identify weaknesses in your presentation /you will be able to practise difficult pronunciations /you will be able to check the time that your presentation takes and make any necessary modifications
排练是准备工作的重要组成部分。你应该留出时间练习你的演讲两三次。这将有以下好处:你将更加熟悉你想说的话/你将发现你演讲中的弱点/你将能够练习困难的发音/你将能够检查你的演讲所花费的时间并做出任何必要的修改

 

 

So prepare, prepare, prepare! Prepare everything: words, visual aids, timing, equipment. Rehearse your presentation several times and time it. Is it the right length? Are you completely familiar with all your illustrations? Are they in the right order? Do you know who the audience is? How many people? How will you answer difficult questions? Do you know the room? Are you confident about the equipment? When you have answered all these questions, you will be a confident, enthusiastic presenter ready to communicate the subject of your presentation to an eager audience.
Easily your most important piece of equipment is...YOU! Make sure you're in full working order, and check your personal presentation carefully - if you don't, your audience will!
准备,准备,准备!准备一切:文字,视觉辅助,时间,设备。排练你的演讲好几次并计时。长度合适吗?你完全熟悉你所有的插图吗?它们的顺序正确吗?你知道观众是谁吗?有多少人?你将如何回答困难的问题?你知道那个房间吗?你对设备有信心吗?当你回答完所有这些问题后,你将成为一个自信、热情的演讲者,随时准备向热切的听众传达你的演讲主题。你最重要的装备就是…你!确保你完全处于工作状态,仔细检查你的个人陈述——如果你不这样做,你的听众会的!

 

 

Equipment that you may use:
你可能会用到的工具:

 

 

notebook computer
笔记本电脑

 

 

The notebook computer is used to display text and graphics during presentations. Basically, it can display anything that you put on your computer screen, including entire presentations generated by presentation software. An excellent tool if used in moderation, but not as an alternative to you—the speaker. It is often used in conjunction with an overhead projector or other projector, which projects the image from the computer screen onto the wall screen.
笔记本电脑用于在演示过程中显示文本和图形。基本上,它可以显示你放在电脑屏幕上的任何东西,包括演示软件生成的整个演示文稿。一个很好的工具,如果使用适度,但不是作为一个替代你的演讲者。它通常与投影仪或其他投影仪一起使用,投影仪将计算机屏幕上的图像投影到墙上的屏幕上。

 

 

A good workman never blames his tools.
一个好工人从不责怪他的工具。

 

 

overhead projector (OHP) The overhead projector (OHP) displays overhead transparencies (OHTs or OHPTs). It has several advantages over the 35mm slide projector: it can be used in daylight /the user can face the audience /the user can write or draw directly on the transparency while in use
高架投影仪(OHP)高架投影仪(OHP)显示高架透明胶片(OHT或OHPT)。它比35mm幻灯机有几个优点:可以在日光下使用/用户可以面对观众/用户可以在使用时直接在透明胶片上写字或画画

 

 

whiteboard
白板

 

 

The whiteboard (more rarely blackboard or greenboard) is a useful device for spontaneous writing - as in brainstorming, for example. For prepared material, the OHP might be more suitable.
白板(很少是黑板或绿板)是自发写作的有用工具,例如在头脑风暴中。对于制备的材料,OHP可能更合适。

 

 

duster
板擦

 

 

The duster is used for cleaning the whiteboard. It is essential that the duster be clean to start with. You may consider carrying your own duster just in case.
掸子是用来清洁白板的。掸子一开始就必须干净。你可以考虑带上你自己的掸子以防万一。

 

 

felt marker
毛毡记号笔

 

 

Markers are used for writing on the whiteboard (delible - you can remove the ink) or flipchart (indelible - you cannot remove the ink). They are usually available in blue, red, black and green. Again, it's a good idea to carry a spare set of markers in case you are given some used ones which do not write well.
记号笔是用来在白板上写字的(可以去掉墨水),也可以在活动挂图上写字(不能去掉墨水)。它们通常有蓝色、红色、黑色和绿色。再说一次,带一套备用的记号笔是个好主意,以防别人给你一些写得不好的旧记号笔。

 

 

flipchart or paper-board
挂图或纸板

 

 

The flipchart consists of several leaves of paper that you 'flip' or turn over. Some people prefer the flipchart to the whiteboard, but its use is limited to smaller presentations.
活动挂图由你“翻转”或翻过的几页纸组成。与白板相比,有些人更喜欢挂图,但它的使用仅限于较小的演示文稿。

 

 

35mm slide projector
35mm幻灯机

 

 

The Slide projector - which must be used in a darkened room - adds a certain drama. Slide projectors have mostly been overtaken by digital electronic media and are rare today. Some slide projectors can be synchronised with audio for audio-visual (AV) presentations. These projectors are typically used for larger presentations. The majority take 35mm slides or transparencies (as seen here), but projectors for 6x6cm slides are also available.
幻灯机——必须在黑暗的房间里使用——增加了某种戏剧性。幻灯放映机大多已经被数字电子媒体所取代,在今天已经很少见了。一些幻灯机可以与音频同步,用于视听(AV)演示。这些投影仪通常用于较大的演示。大多数采用35毫米幻灯片或透明胶片(如图所示),但也提供6厘米6厘米幻灯片的投影仪。

 

 

screen
屏幕

 

 

Transparencies are projected by an overhead projector or a slide projector onto a screen - in this case a folding screen which can be packed up and transported.
透明胶片通过投影机或幻灯机投射到屏幕上,在这种情况下,就是可以打包和运输的折叠屏幕。

 

 

handouts
讲义

 

 

Handouts are any documents or samples that you 'hand out' or distribute to your audience. Note that it is not usually a good idea to distribute handouts before your presentation. The audience will read the handouts instead of listening to you.
讲义是你“分发”或分发给听众的任何文件或样本。请注意,在演讲前分发讲义通常不是一个好主意。听众会读讲义而不是听你讲。

 

 

'Delivery' refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. Delivery is at least as important as content, especially in a multi-cultural context.
“发表”是指你实际交演讲、执行或陈述的方式。发表是所有演示文稿的一个重要方面。发表至少与内容同等重要,尤其是在多元文化背景下。

 

 

Nerves
神经

 

 

Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning of a presentation. So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention to the beginning of your presentation. First impressions count. This is the time when you establish a rapport with your audience. During this time, try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduction by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence.
大多数演讲者在演讲开始时都有点紧张。所以你紧张是正常的。答案是要特别注意你演讲的开头。第一印象很重要。这是你与听众建立融洽关系的时候。在这段时间里,试着慢慢地、平静地说话。你也许应该把你的介绍背下来。几分钟后,你就会放松,获得自信。

 

 

Audience Rapport
观众关系

 

 

You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you are enthusiastic your audience will be enthusiastic too. And be careful to establish eye contact with each member of your audience. Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. This means that you must look at each person in turn - in as natural a way as possible. This will also give you the opportunity to detect signs of boredom, disinterest or even disagreement, allowing you to modify your presentation as appropriate.
你需要和你的听众建立一种热情友好的关系。热情是会传染的。如果你很热情,你的听众也会很热情。注意与每一位听众建立眼神交流。每个人都应该感觉到你在直接和他或她说话。这意味着你必须以尽可能自然的方式依次看待每个人。这也会让你有机会发现无聊,不感兴趣,甚至不同意的迹象,让你修改你的陈述适当。

 

 

Body Language
肢体语言

 

 

What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, your expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room. Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making a presentation. Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Be aware, too, that the movement of your body is one of your methods of control. When you move to or from the whiteboard, for example, you can move fast or slowly, raising or reducing the dynamism within the audience. You can stand very still while talking or you can stroll from side to side. What effect do you think these two different approaches would have on an audience?
你不说的至少和你说的一样重要。你的身体甚至在你开口之前就已经在对你的听众说话了。你的衣服,你的走路,你的眼镜,你的发型,你的表情-正是从这些你的观众形成的第一印象,你进入房间。一般来说,做报告时最好站着而不是坐着。注意并避免任何重复和恼人的手势。也要注意,你身体的运动是你控制的方法之一。例如,当你在白板上移动或离开白板时,你可以快速或缓慢地移动,提高或降低观众的活力。你可以一边说话一边站着不动,也可以左右走动。你认为这两种不同的方法会对听众产生什么影响?

 

 

Cultural Considerations
文化因素

 

 

Because English is so widely used around the world, it is quite possible that many members of your audience will not be native English-speakers. In other words, they will not have an Anglo-Saxon culture. Even within the Anglo-Saxon world, there are many differences in culture. If we hypothetically imagine a German working for an Israeli company making a presentation in English to a Japanese audience in Korea, we can see that there are even more possibilities for cultural misunderstanding. You should try to learn about any particular cultural matters that may affect your audience. This is one reason why preparation for your presentation is so important. Cultural differences can also be seen in body language, which we have just discussed. To a Latin from Southern France or Italy, a presenter who uses his hands and arms when speaking may seem dynamic and friendly. To an Englishman, the same presenter may seem unsure of his words and lacking in self-confidence.
由于英语在世界各地的应用如此广泛,你的许多听众很可能不是以英语为母语的人。换句话说,他们不会有盎格鲁撒克逊文化。即使在盎格鲁撒克逊世界内部,文化也有许多差异。如果我们假设一个为以色列公司工作的德国人用英语向在韩国的日本观众做演讲,我们会发现文化误解的可能性更大。你应该尝试了解任何可能影响你的听众的特定文化问题。这就是为什么你的演讲准备如此重要的原因之一。文化差异也可以从我们刚才讨论的肢体语言中看到。对于一个来自法国南部或意大利的拉丁人来说,演讲时用手和胳膊的演讲者似乎充满活力和友好。对一个英国人来说,同一个演讲者似乎不确定自己的话,缺乏自信。

 

 

Voice quality
音质

 

 

It is, of course, important that your audience be able to hear you clearly throughout your presentation. Remember that if you turn away from your audience, for example towards the whiteboard, you need to speak a little more loudly. In general, you should try to vary your voice. Your voice will then be more interesting for your audience. You can vary your voice in at least three ways:
当然,重要的是你的听众能够在你的演讲中清晰地听到你的声音。记住,如果你离开你的听众,比如对着白板,你需要大声一点。一般来说,你应该试着改变你的声音。你的声音对你的听众来说会更有趣。您至少可以通过三种方式改变您的声音:

 

 

speed: you can speak at normal speed, you can speak faster, you can speak more slowly - and you can stop completely! You can pause. This is a very good technique for gaining your audience's attention. /intonation: you can change the pitch of your voice. You can speak in a high tone. You can speak in a low tone. /volume: you can speak at normal volume, you can speak loudly and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can again attract your audience's interest. The important point is not to speak in the same, flat, monotonous voice throughout your presentation - this is the voice that hypnotists use to put their patients' into trance!
速度:你可以以正常的速度说话,你可以说得更快,你可以说得更慢-你可以完全停止!你可以停下来。这是一个非常好的技巧,以获得您的观众的注意。/语调:你可以改变声音的音调。你可以用高音说话。你可以低声说话。/音量:你可以用正常的音量说话,可以大声说话,也可以安静地说话。小声点说话能再次吸引听众的兴趣。重要的一点是在你的演讲中不要用相同的、平淡的、单调的声音——这是催眠师用来让病人进入恍惚状态的声音!

 

 

Visual aids
视觉教具

 

 

Of all the information that enters our brains, the vast majority of it enters through the eyes. 80% of what your audience learn during your presentation is learned visually (what they see) and only 20% is learned aurally (what they hear). The significance of this is obvious:
在所有进入我们大脑的信息中,绝大多数是通过眼睛进入的。在你的演讲中,80%的听众是通过视觉(他们看到的)学习的,只有20%的听众是通过听觉(他们听到的)学习的。其意义显而易见:

 

 

visual aids are an extremely effective means of communication /non-native English speakers need not worry so much about spoken English - they can rely more heavily on visual aids. It is well worth spending time in the creation of good visual aids. But it is equally important not to overload your audience's brains. Keep the information on each visual aid to a minimum - and give your audience time to look at and absorb this information. Remember, your audience have never seen these visual aids before. They need time to study and to understand them. Without understanding there is no communication. Apart from photographs and drawings, some of the most useful visual aids are charts and graphs, like the 3-dimensional
视觉教具是一种非常有效的交流手段/非英语母语人士不必太担心英语口语-他们可以更依赖视觉教具。花时间创作好的视觉辅助工具是非常值得的。但同样重要的是,不要让听众的大脑负担过重。尽量减少每个视觉辅助工具上的信息,给你的观众时间去看和吸收这些信息。请记住,您的观众以前从未见过这些视觉辅助工具。他们需要时间来学习和理解他们。没有理解就没有交流。除了照片和图画之外,一些最有用的视觉辅助工具是图表和图形,比如三维图形

 

 

ones shown here:
这里显示的是:

 

 

3D piechart: Piecharts are circular in shape (like a pie). /3D barchart: Barcharts can be vertical (as here) or horizontal. /3D graph: Graphs can rise and fall.
三维饼图:饼图是圆形的(像一个饼)。/三维条形图:条形图可以是垂直的(如这里所示)或水平的。/三维图形:图形可以上升和下降。

 

 

Audience Reaction
观众反应

 

 

Remain calm and polite if you receive difficult or even hostile questions during your presentation. If you receive particularly awkward questions, you might suggest that the questioners ask their questions after your presentation.
如果你在演讲过程中遇到困难甚至敌对的问题,保持冷静和礼貌。如果你收到特别尴尬的问题,你可以建议提问者在你演讲后问他们的问题。

 

 

Language in the speech.
演讲中使用的言语

 

 

Simplicity and Clarity
简洁明了

 

 

If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear. Use short words and short sentences. /Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it. /In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas. /Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing:
如果你想让你的听众理解你的信息,你的语言必须简单明了。使用短词和短句。/不要使用行话,除非你确信你的听众能理解。/一般来说,谈论具体的事实而不是抽象的想法。/用主动动词代替被动动词。主动动词更容易理解。他们更强大。想想这两句话,它们说的是同一件事:

 

 

Toyota sold nine million vehicles last year. /Nine million vehicles were sold by Toyota last year.
丰田去年售出900万辆汽车。/丰田去年售出900万辆汽车。

 

 

Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? 1 is active and 2 is passive.
哪个更容易理解?哪个更直接?哪个更强大?1是主动的,2是被动的。

 

 

Signposting
信号提示

 

 

When you drive on the roads, you know where you are on those roads. Each road has a name or number. Each town has a name. And each house has a number. If you are at house #100, you can go back to #50 or forward to #150. You can look at the signposts for directions. And you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other words, it is easy to navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a presentation, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. Because you put up signposts for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called 'signposting' (or 'signalling').
当你在路上开车时,你知道你在那些路上的位置。每条路都有一个名字或号码。每个城镇都有一个名字。每家都有一个号码。如果你在100号房,你可以回到50号房,也可以转到150号房。你可以看路标看方向。你可以看你的地图册来详细了解道路的结构。换言之,在道路上行驶很容易。你不能迷路。但是当你做演讲的时候,你的听众怎么知道他们在哪里呢?他们怎么知道你演讲的结构?他们怎么知道接下来会发生什么?他们知道是因为你告诉了他们。因为你在一开始和沿途都为他们竖起了路标。这种技术被称为“路标”(或“信号”)。

 

 

During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your presentation will be. You might say something like this:
在你的介绍中,你应该告诉你的听众你的演讲的结构是什么。你可以这样说:

 

 

"I'll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I'll move on to some of the achievements we've made in Asia. After that I'll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I'll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations."
“我先来描述一下目前在欧洲的状况。接下来我将介绍我们在亚洲取得的一些成就。之后,我将考虑我们看到的在非洲进一步扩张的机会。最后,在总结一些建议之前,我将快速回顾一下。”

 

 

A member of the audience can now visualize your presentation like this:
观众现在可以将您的演示形象化为:

 

 

Introduction /Welcome /Explanation of structure (now)
介绍/欢迎/解释结构(现在)

 

 

Body /Europe /Asia /Africa
主体/欧洲/亚洲/非洲

 

 

Conclusion /Summing up /Recommendations
结论/总结/建议

 

 

He will keep this image in his head during the presentation. He may even write it down. And throughout your presentation, you will put up signposts telling him which point you have reached and where you are going now. When you finish Europe and want to start Asia, you might say: "That's all I have to say about Europe. Let's turn now to Asia." When you have finished Africa and want to sum up, you might say: "Well, we've looked at the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa. I'd like to sum up now." And when you finish summing up and want to give your recommendations, you might say: "What does all this mean for us? Well, firstly I recommend..."
在演讲过程中,他会一直把这个形象记在脑子里。他甚至可以写下来。在整个演讲过程中,你会竖起路标,告诉他你已经到达了哪一点,你现在要去哪里。当你完成了欧洲,想要开始亚洲,你可能会说:“这就是我要说的关于欧洲的一切。现在我们来谈谈亚洲。”当你讲完非洲并想总结一下时,你可能会说:“好吧,我们看了欧洲、亚洲和非洲三大洲。现在我想总结一下。”当你总结完并想提出建议时,你可能会说:“这一切对我们意味着什么?嗯,首先我建议……”

 

 

The table below lists useful expressions that you can use to signpost the various parts of your presentation.
下表列出了一些有用的表达式,您可以使用这些表达式来标示演示文稿的各个部分。

 

 

Signposting /Function /Language
路标/功能/语言

 

 

Introducing the subject:I'd like to start by... /Let's begin by... /First of all, I'll... /Starting with... /I'll begin by...
介绍主题:我想从。。。/让我们从。。。/首先,我会。。。/从。。。/我先从。。。

 

 

Finishing one subject...:Well, I've told you about... /That's all I have to say about... /We've looked at... /So much for...
完成一个主题…:嗯,我告诉过你。。。/这就是我要说的。。。/我们已经看了。。。/就这么多。。。

 

 

...and starting another:Now we'll move on to... /Let me turn now to... /Next... /Turning to... /I'd like now to discuss... /Let's look now at...
…开始另一个:现在我们继续。。。/现在让我来谈谈。。。/下一个。。。/转向。。。/我现在想讨论一下。。。/现在让我们看看。。。

 

 

Analysing a point and giving recommendations:Where does that lead us? /Let's consider this in more detail... /What does this mean for ABC? /Translated into real terms...
分析一个观点并给出建议:这将把我们引向何方?/让我们更详细地考虑一下。。。/这对ABC意味着什么?/翻译成实际情况。。。

 

 

Giving an example:For example,... /A good example of this is... /As an illustration,... /To give you an example,... /To illustrate this point...
举个例子:例如,。。。/一个很好的例子是。。。/举例来说,。。。/举个例子,。。。/为了说明这一点。。。

 

 

Dealing with questions:We'll be examining this point in more detail later on... /I'd like to deal with this question later, if I may... /I'll come back to this question later in my talk... /Perhaps you'd like to raise this point at the end... /I won't comment on this now...
处理问题:我们稍后将更详细地研究这一点。。。/我想稍后再处理这个问题,如果可以的话。。。/我稍后会在我的演讲中回到这个问题。。。/也许你想在最后提出这一点。。。/我现在不评论这个。。。

 

 

Summarising and concluding:In conclusion,... /Right, let's sum up, shall we? /I'd like now to recap... /Let's summarise briefly what we've looked at... /Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered... /If I can just sum up the main points...
总结和概括:总之,。。。/好的,让我们总结一下,好吗?/现在我想重述一下。。。/让我们简要总结一下我们所看到的。。。/最后,让我提醒你我们讨论过的一些问题。。。/如果我能总结一下要点。。。

 

 

Ordering:Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly... /First of all...then...next...after that...finally... /To start with...later...to finish up...
顺序:第一…第二…第三…最后。。。/首先…然后…接下来…之后…最后。。。/开始…稍后…结束。。。

 

 

That's all I have to say about the language of presentations. Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions):
关于演讲语言,我只想说这些。大多数演示文稿分为3个主要部分(+问题):

 

 

1     INTRODUCTION     (Questions) /2     BODY /3     ConCLUSION /Questions
1引言(问题)/2正文/3结论/问题

 

 

As a general rule in communication, repetition is valuable. In presentations, there is a golden rule about repetition:
作为交流的一般规则,重复是有价值的。在演讲中,重复有一条黄金法则:

 

 

Say what you are going to say... /say it... /then say what you have just said.
说出你要说的话。。。/说吧。。。/那就说你刚才说的话。

 

 

In other words, use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your message. In the introduction, you tell your audience what your message is going to be. In the body, you tell your audience your real message. In the conclusion, you summarize what your message was. We will now consider each of these parts in more detail.
换句话说,用你演讲的三个部分来强化你的信息。在开场白中,你告诉你的听众你的信息是什么。在主体部分里,你告诉你的听众你真正的信息。在结论中,你总结了你的信息是什么。我们现在将更详细地考虑其中的每一部分。

 

 

Introduction
开场白

 

 

The introduction is a very important - perhaps the most important - part of your presentation. This is the first impression that your audience have of you. You should concentrate on getting your introduction right. You should use the introduction to:
开场白是你演讲中非常重要的部分,也许是最重要的部分。这是你的听众对你的第一印象。你应该集中精力把你的介绍做好。您应该使用简介:

 

 

welcome your audience /introduce your subject /outline the structure of your presentation /give instructions about questions
欢迎你的听众/介绍你的主题/概述你演讲的结构/就问题给出说明

 

 

The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate.
下表显示了每个函数的语言示例。您可能需要根据需要修改语言。

 

 

Function /Possible language
功能/可能的语言

 

 

1.Welcoming your audience:Good morning, ladies and gentlemen /Good morning, gentlemen /Good afternoon, ladies and gentleman /Good afternoon, everybody
1.欢迎各位听众:早上好,女士们先生们/早上好,先生们/下午好,女士们先生们/大家下午好

 

 

2.Introducing your subject:I am going to talk today about... /The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of...
2.介绍你的主题:我今天要谈谈。。。/我演讲的目的是介绍我们的新系列。。。

 

 

3.Outlining your structure:To start with I'll describe the progress made this year. Then I'll mention some of the problems we've encountered and how we overcame them. After that I'll consider the possibilities for further growth next year. Finally, I'll summarize my presentation (before concluding with some recommendations).
3.概述你的结构:首先,我将描述今年取得的进展。然后我会提到我们遇到的一些问题,以及我们是如何克服它们的。在那之后,我将考虑明年进一步增长的可能性。最后,我将总结一下我的演讲(在总结一些建议之前)。

 

 

4.Giving instructions about questions :Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions. /I'll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation. /I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.
4.关于问题的指示:如果你有任何问题,请随时打断我。/演讲结束后,我会尽力回答你所有的问题。/我计划在演讲后留点时间提问。

 

 

Body
主体部分

 

 

The body is the 'real' presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be 'in control'. You will be relaxed and confident. The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals. Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation: do not hurry /be enthusiastic /give time on visuals /maintain eye contact /modulate your voice /look friendly /keep to your structure /use your notes /signpost throughout /remain polite when dealing with difficult questions
主体部分才是真正的表现。如果介绍准备得很好,你现在就可以“掌控”了。你会放松和自信。身体应该有良好的结构,有逻辑的划分,有大量仔细间隔的视觉效果。在演讲时要记住以下要点:不要着急/要热情/在视觉上花时间/保持眼神交流/调节声音/看起来友好/保持结构/使用笔记/路标/在处理困难问题时保持礼貌

 

 

Conclusion
总结部分

 

 

Use the conclusion to: Sum up /(Give recommendations if appropriate) /Thank your audience /Invite questions
使用结论:总结/(适当时给出建议)/感谢听众/提出问题

 

 

The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate.
下表显示了每个功能的语言示例。您可能需要根据需要修改语言。

 

 

Function /Possible language
功能/可能的语言

 

 

1.Summing up:To conclude,... /In conclusion,... /Now, to sum up... /So let me summarise/recap what I've said. /Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.
1.总结:总结,。。。/总之,。。。/总而言之。。。/让我总结一下我所说的。/最后,请允许我提醒你我们考虑过的一些要点。

 

 

2.Giving recommendations:In conclusion, my recommendations are... /I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.
2.提出建议:总之,我的建议是。。。/因此,我建议采取以下战略。

 

 

3.Thanking your audience:Many thanks for your attention. /May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.
3.感谢观众:非常感谢大家的关注。/请允许我感谢你们所有人是如此细心的听众。

 

 

4.Inviting questionsNow I'll try to answer any questions you may have. /Can I answer any questions? /Are there any questions? /Do you have any questions? /Are there any final questions?
4.邀请提问:现在我试着回答你的任何问题。/我能回答任何问题吗?/有什么问题吗?/你有什么问题吗?/还有最后的问题吗?

 

 

Questions
提问

 

 

Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for questions after your presentation. Normally, it's your decision, and you should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.
提问是你与听众互动的好机会。你可以试着预测会被问到什么问题,这样你就可以提前准备好你的回答。您可能希望在演示过程中随时接受问题,或在演示结束后留出时间回答问题。通常,这是你的决定,你应该在介绍的时候说清楚。对所有提问者都要有礼貌,即使他们问的问题很难。他们对你要说的话很感兴趣,值得关注。有时你可以重新提出一个问题。或者用另一个问题来回答这个问题。甚至向其他观众征求意见。
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